Canine seborrhoea: Why is my dog’s coat oily and smelly?Canine seborrhoea or seborrhoeic dermatitis is a common skin condition that affects dogs and relates to the sebaceous glands in their skin. The sebaceous glands are associated with the hair follicles and produce an oily secretion called sebum. This sebum makes the hairs waterproof and keeps the skin supple. However, overactivity of these sebaceous glands leads to the production of excess sebum, which can lead to the skin becoming red, itchy, oily, scaly/flaky and/or smelly. There are two common types of seborrhoea: seborrhoea oleosa (oily seborrhoea) and seborrhoea sicca (dry seborrhoea). Often these two types can occur simultaneously. Read all about it in this article.This article was written by a FirstVet vetDid you know that FirstVet offers video calls with experienced, UK registered vets? You can get a consultation within 30 minutes by downloading the FirstVet app for free from the Apple App Store or Google Play.✓ Included free as part of many pet insurance policies✓ Help, treatment and if you need it, a referral to your local vet✓ Open 24 hours a day, 365 days a year Rating: 4.9 - more than 1600 reviewsRating: 4.9 - more than 1300 reviewsRating: 4.9 - more than 1600 reviews BOOK Causes: Why is my dog’s coat oily and smelly?Seborrhoea can be a primary or secondary condition. Primary seborrhoea is a genetic condition that can occur in any dog breed but is frequently seen in the West Highland White Terrier, American Cocker Spaniel, English Springer Spaniel, Basset Hound, Dachshund, Labrador Retriever, Golden Retriever, German Shepherd, Doberman and Shar-Pei. It usually affects the dog by the time they reach two years of age and then progresses as they get older.Secondary seborrhoea usually occurs as a result of another disease affecting the skin. Examples include:Allergies - usually in younger dogsObesityParasitesEndocrine (hormonal) diseases - such as thyroid disease or Cushing’s disease, which usually affect middle aged or older dogsDietary deficiencies - diets containing low levels of omega-3 fatty acidsMalabsorption disordersAutoimmune disordersEnvironmental factors (temperature, humidity)Musculoskeletal disease or pain - leading to inadequate groomingSigns: What does seborrhoea in dogs look like?The excess sebum produced by the sebaceous glands in the skin accumulates in certain places, such as along the back, the abdomen or areas with folds (armpits, thighs, feet, neck and ears). Given its oily nature, the excess sebum leaves a distinctive smell on the coat and skin. It may leave an oily feel when you stroke your dog, or you may find that the skin looks dry and flaky (appearance of dandruff). The skin may appear red and inflamed. Some dogs feel very itchy: if your dog starts scratching these areas, it could lead to bleeding, crusting, hair loss and secondary infections of the traumatised skin (papules or pimples).Diagnosis: How do I know if my dog has seborrhoea?A diagnosis of primary seborrhoea can only be made once secondary seborrhoea and all other possible causes have been ruled out. For this, your vet will likely recommend the following diagnostic procedures:Physical examinationSkin scrapings and hair pluckings - to check for skin parasitesSkin cytology, as well as fungal and bacterial cultures of the skin and hairFaecal analysis - to check for parasitesUrinanalysis and blood tests (complete blood count, biochemistry panel and more specific screening tests) - to rule out allergies, endocrine diseases, and dietary/digestive abnormalitiesSkin biopsyTreatment: How can I treat my dog's seborrhoea at home?Treatment will depend on the underlying cause, as well as control of the excess sebum and treatment of any secondary skin infections. In cases of primary seborrhoea there is no specific treatment so the condition must be managed to prevent secondary skin infections.Control of the excess sebum and management of the condition mainly includes the use of antiseborrheic shampoos and dietary supplements. These shampoos soothe the itchiness and clean the skin to remove excess scale and sebum. They generally contain a combination of the following ingredients:Antifungal and antibacterial agents to control any secondary skin infectionsKeratolytic products to remove excess dead skin cells - removes the scaling and makes the skin feel softerKeratoplastic products to reduce scale formationEmollients to reduce water loss from the skin - if not included in the shampoo, these can be applied after shampooingOmega-3 fatty acid supplements can be very beneficial and easily added to your dog’s food. Omega-3 and Omega-6 fatty acids, in the correct balance, are very good for maintaining a healthy skin barrier and they may also help to reduce the itchiness. YuDerm offer two products: Itching Dog and Moulting Dog.When to see your vetRedness of the skin and/or pimplesHair lossScaly or flaky skin (dandruff)Oily coatThickened or rough skin with crusts or scabsBad smell from the skin and coat, or earsItchiness or painFurther readingSkin allergies and itching in dogsHair loss or bald patches in dogsSkin allergies and itching in dogsStill worried?Book a video appointment to have a chat with one of our vets.