What are probiotics? Why and when should I give them to my dog or cat?Probiotics, you can buy them everywhere, in boxes of every size, shape and colour. But what is a probiotic actually? Does it do anything? How to use it? Read on for what you need to know about gut health and probiotics.Meet a vet online✓ Included free as part of many pet insurance policies✓ Help, treatment and if you need it, a referral to your local vet✓ Open 24/7, 365 days a year Rating: 4.9 - more than 1600 reviewsRating: 4.9 - more than 1300 reviewsRating: 4.9 - more than 1600 reviews BOOK Dogs and cats have a lot of microorganisms, aka gut flora, living in their gut (10 followed by 12 to 14 zeroes, according to the latest research), most of them being bacteria from 3 major families. These ‘good’ bacteria do a lot of jobs in return for accommodation, from helping with the absorption of nutrients from food, to promoting immune function, to actively producing substances that your pet’s body needs to keep healthy. There’s a win-win relationship with them, so they are referred to as mutualistic bacteria.Besides them, the gut also contains microbes that are simply taking advantage of a nice warm place to live without causing any harm (called commensals), though some of them could cause problems given half a chance (these are known as opportunistic pathogens).The third type of microbes in the gut are known as pathogens because their ‘lifestyle’ always causes trouble to the host. They usually enter the gut by accidental ingestion and again, most of them are bacteria, though viruses, yeasts and one-cell parasites are part of this group too. The gut’s immune system tries to remove the pathogens asap and, together with the mutualist bacterial populations, keep the commensals in low numbers. From time to time, though, this delicate balance gets disturbed.This can be caused by:sudden changes in food or treats (e.g. new type, with a different protein-fat-carbohydrates ratio, human food with too much salt, fat or spices),non-digestible objects that irritate the gut lining with their hard texture,pathogen-contaminated stuff (e.g. cat poo, fox poo, decomposing foods),presence of worms,certain medications (anti-inflammatories, antibiotics, etc),other illnesses, even unrelated to the gut orstress (like leaving mum and siblings to go to their permanent home, being away in catteries or kennels, etc).What are probiotics and how do they work?Probiotic supplements are products containing high concentrations of beneficial bacteria for the dog and cat gut (the probiotic proper, usually bacteria of the Enterococcus family). For a better effect, they are often combined with a prebiotic (simple carbohydrates that feed the bacteria) and occasionally with substances that feed the cells of the gut lining, neutralise the toxins of ‘bad’ bacteria and help make the stool more solid (usually natural sugars and clay derivatives or plant extracts).As you might have guessed already, probiotics help increase the numbers of the ‘good’ bacteria and restore a normal gut function. Because the gut flora is very specific for a species, human probiotics like Actimel or Yakult are not suitable for cats and dogs because they contain bacteria meant for the human colon.When should probiotics be used?Since they contain only beneficial bacteria and naturally occurring substances, you can’t do much wrong with probiotics. Try them as a first aid for:acute diarrhoea in dogs and cats after a change of diet, home or scavenging,infectious diarrhoea or colitis,gut irritation after a foreign body passagechronic diarrhoea without weight or appetite loss,during and after finishing an antibiotics course, for example after a HGE episode,after surgery (check with your vet first if your pet had surgery of the gut).Please use probiotics only in pets that are well in themselves apart from the abnormal stool, until the stool is back to normal for at least 2-3 days. Use the dose recommended on the package. If there’s no improvement after 4-5 days of probiotics or if your pet has other signs apart from the diarrhoea, like vomiting, inappetence or seems in pain, please consult a vet.What type of probiotics are there?The quality of a probiotic is determined by the concentration of ‘good’ bacteria in it and their various formulation (paste, tablets or granules) has nothing to do with it. Here are a few brands routinely used in vet practice, sorted by type. PasteProtexin Pro-Kolin for dogs and catsNutrabio for dogs and catsCanikur Pro for dogs and catsEntermicro Complex for dogs and catsLOGIC Firm for dogs and catsTablets or capsulesYuDIGEST for dogsEntermicro Complex for dogs and catsProtexin Pro-Balance for dogs and catsGranulesPRO PLAN FortiFlora for dogsPRO PLAN FortiFlora for catsYuDIGEST PLUS for dogsHave more questions?Book a video appointment to have a chat with one of our vets.